Galapagos News

Lenin strikes a deal with the IMF

Last week's edition of The Economist had a good article on the current financial challenges confronting Lenin Moreno, the wheelchair bound president of the country.   His charismatic predecessor, Rafael Correa, brought in big changes to "politics as usual" during his 10 year tenure - improving working conditions for teachers and others, and spending generously on much needed infrastructure (you'll witness the results directly on arrival at the new Quito airport and on the new highway to the city).   

Perhaps the spending wasn't always as efficient as it could have been, and the precipitous drop in the price of oil, an important source of revenue for this US dollar based economy didn't help either.  In any case, Ecuador is facing challenging fiscal and budgetary hurdles these days.    

The Economist article provides a good overview of the situation, along with likely difficult measures that will need to be imposed as part of a $4.2 billion loan agreement with the International Monetary Fund.    

For those interested in the broader political context of their visit to Galapagos - or if you're looking to start a conversation with some of the locals you'll meet, this is a good way to understand the backgroung against which many Ecuadorians might be expressing concerns about financial clouds on the horizon.   

The full article can be consuted here

Park Director Responds to Social Media Defamation

Jorge Carrión (above) was hired as the director of the Galapagos National Park in March 2018 (see our news story here).   It's not an easy job.  He has to deal with major issues with international political ramifications (such as the capture of a huge Chinese fishing vessel full of protected sharks in its hold) to the day to day entreaties of locals (such as a cattle farmer wanting to let his cattle roam in park lands during a dry spell).   

Galapagos is also a bit of a pressure cooker when it comes to small town and national politics, family feuds, petty jealousies and resentment.   

Mix all of this and throw in the "vomitorium" of social media, and in no time, the Park Director becomes the target of demeaning innuendo and outright fabrications on the part of anonymous posters.   Being such a small town, rumours develop and spread like wildfire.  

This morning, Jorge Carrión decided to respond.   He published the following piece on his FaceBook page (thank you Google Translate for saving me the effort of translating it myself into English).    I thought that people interested in a Galapagos trip - or those already having been on one, would appreciate getting a glimpse the other side of life in Galapagos.    

 

 

Posted on FaceBook, 10 April 2019

Dear colleagues, friends, and family, it is painful for me to have to point out certain information through this medium, but in view of some malicious publications and of the respect that the people who know me and esteem me deserve. I feel obliged to do it.

I come from a humble and hardworking family, my parents knew how to instill honest work and gave me the education to learn to tolerate and respect everyone, even those who do not deserve it.

Until I was 29 years old I was exclusively studying, preparing myself to serve my land. In 2012, recently graduated, I had the opportunity to fulfill one of my dreams, to work in the Galapagos National Park (PNG). Although I arrived with the highest possible academic degree, I started as an Environmental Quality technician in the PNG, a position I held with a lot of responsibility and delivery. I firmly believe that my performance was rewarding and I was attending to greater responsibilities and new positions, from environmental quality, applied research, climate change, Director of Environmental Management, to the present that I serve as Director of the Galapagos National Park.

The fact of having started from below, even as a volunteer of the Galapagos National Park, has given me the opportunity to get to know the institution and its people, the daily efforts well beyond the working hours, and most importantly, I have been recognizing and identifying the objectives of the institution as my own, since I wish with all my heart, to leave a legacy for my children.

My arrival at the Directorate of the Galapagos National Park has not been improvised, it has not been the product of any business or treatment of any kind, it has been the product of my sacrifice and that of my family. Therefore, I totally repudiate the attempts of discrediting me, drawing hasty and ill-intentioned conclusions. Any insinuation or damage to my integrity will be defended in law, because by suspicion, my name can not be involved or that of anyone else.

Today, as head of the Galapagos National Park, I am involved in the investigative process that seeks to clarify the disappearance of the giant tortoises (Ed. see the CNH news story on this here), the research process that I requested and supported from the beginning and that still support and impulse, because the main objective is to find those responsible and that the competent authority can sanction them as the law establishes.

To the relevant authorities, all possible facilities have been provided so that they can carry out the necessary investigations – I am interested more than anyone in being able to identify the culprits of this event. I do not intend to participate in the unethical games of responding to information coming from fantasized and unoccupied minds, and from resentful hearts; each one is the owner of their actions and must respond to the competent authorities in their respective moment.

Finally, I make a call to team spirit - we are a relatively small town in which team spirit should prevail and of course honesty. If we have evidence of an act of corruption, give the evidence to the authority so that those involved are punished, but do not share this information without being sure that it is true and even more damaging the honor of honest people.

Greetings to all. Excellent day.

Sold like hotcakes

A big thank you to our wonderful Galapagos alumni who were quick to sign up for our Victoria Falls / Okavango / Kalahari / South Africa trip taking place in May 2020.  The trip sold out within 3 weeks of having posted it and we have others on a waiting list.   

We're looking forward to this trip - the first we've done outside of Galapagos.  Thanks to the services of Karen Ross (a.k.a. the "champion of the Okavango"), we're confident that the participants will get a unique insight on the wonders, the history and the challenges of these iconic places. 

We may organize a follow-up trip not too long afterwards.   Let us know if you'd like to have an advanced notification.  

CNH Supports Montana Natural History Center

Paul Smith of Montana was the lucky bidder.   At an auction in support of the Montana Natural History Center (MNHC) last year, his was the winning bid for an 8 day "Active Galapagos" cruise aboard the 14 passenger Samba.  

CNH Tours had been approached by Hank Fischer, a member of the MNHC board of directors earlier in 2018.   He and his wife had just returned from our trip and had had a memorable trip.   He felt that our trip would be a great item to auction off for the Center.   We agreed - we're always keen on supporting good causes.   

Paul completed his cruise last month.  "Absolutely Wonderful" is how he characterized his experience.   

In recognition of our donation, the MNHC just sent us a nice thank you note that we are happy to reproduce here:

 

Magic realism wildlife art: CNH Tours commissions Magno Bennett

 

We’re very proud to highlight the work of Magno Bennett on our website.   The original artwork used as banners on the site’s various pages were produced by Magno 15 years ago.    We met Magno while we lived in Galapagos.  A handsome, gregarious and warm man, Magno could be seen cycling around Puerto Ayora with a broad smile, waving hello to all his friends, and trailing thick dreadlocks as he passed by. When he had to go, his parting motto was always “¡Éxito!”  (success!).  

Magno has been a fixture in the Galapagos community since the 1990’s, when he came over from the mainland.   He was taken under the wing of the late Christine Gallardo, an American woman married to the owner of the local hardware store.  Christine was a pillar of the cultural scene in Galapagos – back before tourism took off.   She ran the best lending library out of her own home.   Christine encouraged Magno to explore his talents and helped him raise the profile of his work.  

Over the years, Magno became more involved in the local arts scene, helping Galapagos youth find their inner artist and raising the profile of art as a respectable and valid form of expression in what was otherwise quite a frontier town.    He was commissioned to produce murals and eventually took on a job working with the newly established cultural centre.  

All these distractions took him away from his art.   We kept on asking him if he was producing anything over the years and he sheepishly responded that he didn’t have the time.   We did manage to buy two pieces from him 10 years ago, now hanging in our home.   But that was it.  

So, in a bid to get him back to work, we asked him if he would be interested in producing new art to adorn the rooms we regularly use at Hotel Fernandina, the family owned and operated establishment we’ve been using for our Active Galapagos trips for many years.    He was keen, and we commissioned seven new pieces of art last July.   The art was finished and hung on the walls of the seven rooms we use just last week.

Magno’s art is tinged with a bit of with magic realism – depicting Galapagos wildlife scenes, but with a rich palette of colours and producing scenes thick with texture and depth.   People are attracted to his art – and since we’ve hung it on the hotel walls, he’s already sold two pieces!    Our agreement is that a piece cannot be removed from the wall until he can replace it with another.  

If you’re keen on seeing his art, you’ll have to take yourself to the Hotel Fernandina in Puerto Ayora, and ask the people at the front desk to show you the rooms in which it is hung.   See below for samples of what he has recently produced. 

Okavango / Kalahari trip selling briskly in first 24 hours

We're very happy to announce that 10 of the 16 spaces available on our May 2020 trip to Southern Africa (Victoria Falls / Okavango / Kalahari / Cape Town) sold out within 24 hours of having posted the trip this Wedesday.   Led by 30 year Okavango wildlife conservation veteran, Dr. Karen Ross, the trip is designed to give you the greatest possible depth and bredth of understanding and experience over a 14 day period.  

We're appreciative of the interest shown by our Galapagos alumni.  

For more info, cick here

Michael Bliemsrieder: "Our Man in Galapagos"

Meet Michael Bliemsrieder:  Candidate for mayor of Santa Cruz, Galapagos

The big day is on March 24th when Galapagueños go to the polls to elect their mayors.  There are three municipal governments in the archipelago – and Santa Cruz, where 75% of Galapagueños live, is the largest by far.  

Michael Bliemsrieder is in the race.  My former office mate, the tall, handsome and charming German-Ecuadorian has been a presence in Galapagos since the 1990’s.  He’s had an interesting time in Galapagos.

For a period, he worked for the Galapagos National Park in various positions, ultimately becoming the Deputy Park Director.  His dedication to the job almost landed him in jail.   Following an investigation on the illegal fishing and commercialization of sea cucumbers (in the star-fish family - and highly prized on Chinese menus), Michael discovered a large amount of these spiny creatures drying on the roof of the provincial member of parliament’s house, Fanny Uribe.   Ms. Uribe, a fiery and dogged politician[1], vociferously berated him and threatened him with a legal challenge.  She hoped to have him withdraw his accusation and to distract attention away from the sea cucumbers drying on her rooftop (some thought the lady did protest too much...). 

Sea cucumber (a live specimen)

 

Sea cucumbers - as they would appear, say.... like drying out on someone's roof

Michael had to leave his post at the National Park and ended up sharing my office at the Charles Darwin Research Station, where he was managing various conservation projects.   Always energetic, positive and welcoming, Michael was a dedicated member of the team and fun to share an office with.  He assumed his new responsibilities with enthusiasm and dedication, developing new ways of measuring project progress and reporting back to donors[2].   Beyond the strict boundaries of his job, he also provided valuable administrative support to running the Darwin Station.  He was quite well liked by the ladies – I found myself frequently having to take messages from women knocking on our door, looking for Michael.

A few years later, Ms. Uribe, still in office and still simmering from the sea cucumber affair, once again went after him. Fearing for his freedom (in Ecuador, it’s relatively easy to place someone in preventive detention while an investigation takes place – one that could last for months or even years…), Michael left the country.  Being fluent in Spanish, English and German, he had no problems getting about overseas. 

Ms. Uribe in action at the national assembly

He spent the next 10 years working in the US, in Cuba (as Head of the World Wildlife Fund's country office there), and then with the WWF in its Ottawa office in Canada, handling the Greater Antilles conservation projects file.   Though he retains a soft spot for Ottawa and still misses the snow, I think it’s the winters that compelled him to eventually return to Ecuador, where he began working as a consultant, heading up his successful conservation / project management business.   

He started engaging in politics at the national level, recently aligning himself with the Pachakutik party, which presents itself as an alternative to the old mainstream, “business as usual” parties in Ecuador.  A bit left of centre, and keen on inclusiveness, Pachakutik has now been around for over 20 years, but has yet to hold power at national or provincial jurisdictions.  

His platform for the upcoming Santa Cruz elections focuses on a strong technocratic approach to municipal government, relying on the results of non-partisan technical studies, on clear-eyed understanding of financial realities and with an eye on the fiscal challenges facing the country[3]

Some of the issues being raised in his campaign is the perennial lack of a potable water supply in Puerto Ayora, the main town.  The out-going mayor has spent large sums on dealing with this issue, yet has had no tangible results and the locals are very keen on getting this issue resolved.   Michael has also expressed a desire to have the national government focus more on the quality of medical care at the local hospital, and less on the fancy designs of the new building that’s being proposed.    An infant recently died in the Puerto Ayora hospital due to, the parents claim, poor treatment.  Townspeople are organizing a march this Friday to raise the profile of this issue. 

There are 10 candidates in the Santa Cruz mayoral race.   And who do you think is among the top contenders?  None other than Michael’s old nemesis, Fanny Uribe.    After being voted out at the national government level, she returned as a Galapagos provincial assembly politician in 2004.   When the provincial status of Galapagos was revoked in 2008, Ms. Uribe was once again out of a job.   She ran in the 2009 Santa Cruz mayoral race – unsuccessfully.   She tried her luck in the 2013 national elections, this time with better results, winning the Galapagos seat, and headed back to Quito, the nation’s capital.   She once again was out of a job after the 2017 national legislative assembly elections.  But like a boomerang, Ms. Uribe keeps on coming back to the electoral platform.

It definitely is a race between the old school, give-them-free-t-shirts and yell-out-in-fiery-indignation politicking embodied by Ms. Uribe, and the emerging sober-minded, facts-based approach promoted by Michael.   We look forward to election day, hoping that “our man in Galapagos”, Michael Bliemsrieder, wins the race.  

[1] I had the pleasure of having had a private meeting with Ms. Uribe while she was a provincial leader, and while I was on a United Nations investigative mission to Galapagos, monitoring this World Heritage site’s state of conservation. 

[2] I attribute my job at UNESCO in part to Michael’s great reporting formats.  UNESCO was funding the project he was reporting on – and when Michael left the Darwin Station, I took over.   I continued with his reporting format which, in hindsight after having worked at UNESCO and received reports from other project managers, was the best by far.  I’m sure the UNESCO folks responsible for hiring me had associated me with the great reports! 

[3] Ecuador, a US dollar country, relies heavily on oil exports to fill the state coffers.  It has sold a good deal of future oil production to China in exchange for advances which were invested in large infrastructure projects and in the improvement of working conditions for teachers, among other things). 

Michael scanning the horizon, preparing for the future...

Magno Bennett's original art in your hotel

Since 2006, the CNH Tours website has been graced with the artwork of Magno Bennett, a Galapagos artist who has spent years encouraging young people in Galapagos to explore their artistic inclinations.   

Today, Magno hung several new works commissioned by CNH Tours in our Galapagos hotel rooms.  Thanks to an agreement with Hotel Fernandina, we are now happy to give our guests who stay there the opportunity to see (and even purchase), Magno's colourful and evocative pieces.   These pieces are for sale - ask to see what's hanging on the walls of other rooms.  

Magno Bennett was born in Guayaquil, Ecuador, and moved to Galapagos in 1994.  He was profoundly impressed by the harsh conditions under which so many life forms managed to establish themselves and go on to thrive in the Galapagos.  He has been compelled to manifest the contrast between beautiful life, and harsh environment in his work.   Magno paints, sculpts and does graphic design work.   His art has been the subject of exhibits throughout Ecuador and is in growing demand as Galapagos visitors, having completed their tour of the islands, recognize the fine balance between life and its shaping environment in his work.  In Galapagos, he has been commissioned to carry out several murals and interpretive displays.

 Magno Bennett

Magno is actively involved in the Galapagos culture and the arts scene.  His leadership is recognized by many, and his talents sought by more.  He has led many learning workshops on art for Galapagos youth over the years, including sessions on batik, printing, painting, ceramics and even tie-dye.  As the nascent Galapagos community seeks to develop its own "island identity", community members such as Magno play an important role.

Massive invasion of baby Giant Tortoises

A group of 155 young (not quite giant yet) tortoises were released on Santa Fe island last week as part of the ecological restoration process of the island.  

Santa Fe island

Santa Fe is a relatively small and flat island, located near the heart of the Galapagos archipelago (4km x 6km, or 2.5 miles x 4 miles).  It boasts only one visitor site, at the bottom of a calm inlet.  Calm waters and sandy beaches there are favoured by sea lions, and there's a pleasant hike through a forest of giant opuntia cactus trees that takes the visitor through land iguana habitat.  

Giant opuntia cactus forest of Santa Fe island

 Juvenile tortoises being released (credit: Galapagos National Park Service)

Santa Fe had a distinct species of giant tortoise for hundreds of thousands of years, perhaps longer, but these became extinct soon after humans first started visiting the Galapagos.  The last reported sighting was over 150 years ago.   Ages ago, before humans spread around the world, giant tortoises could be found in many places.  But as humans spread around the world, they quickly (and literally) were transformed into turtle soup, being easy to catch and a rich food source.  They held out for tens of thousands of years longer in remote islands - until humans arrived there.  Today, they survive in only 2 places – the Galapagos and Aldabra atoll, a very remote island north of Madagascar.  

Given the absence of the original species, the Galapagos National Park decided to re-populate Santa Fe using the Española giant tortoises species, considered to be the most closely related of the 12 surviving giant tortoise species in Galapagos.   

The repopulation work on Santa Fe began in 2015 with the first liberation of 201 juvenile giant tortoises.   Those tortoises are currently between 10 and 12 years old and are expected to start reproducing in the next 5 to 7 years.  More juvenile tortoises will be repatriated until 2026.  Soon, the tortoise population there should be self-sustaining.   Thankfully, there are no introduced rats on Santa Fe.  These aggressive rodents typically prey on baby tortoises, unable to defend themselves until they are 3 or 4 years of age. 

The work was carried out by the Galapagos National Park Service with the support of the Galapagos Conservancy, led by Wacho Tapia, and old colleague and friend of CNH Tours. 

Last seen in 1906 - "extinct" tortoise species re-discovered

An exciting news story was broken today by the Minister of the Environment for Ecuador:  A female Fernandina island tortoise (Chelonoidis Phantasticus), long feared extinct since the last one was captured in 1906, was found this week.  The tortoise was removed from the island and taken to a nearby tortoise breeding centre.   

According to IUCN:

The...only Fernandina tortoise ever collected, was found alive in 1906 by Rollo Beck of the California Academy of Sciences. No other Fernandina tortoises have been documented since, but in 1964 helicopter-assisted surveys of remote areas on Fernandina documented several large tortoise scats and a few Opuntia cactus pads with tortoise bite marks at a location 6 km from the shore at an altitude of 360m, and in 2009 an airplane survey of the inaccessible higher-altitude forest habitat surrounding the central volcano cone yielded a possible unconfirmed sighting of a tortoise, while in 2013, during vegetation monitoring, a scat and some footprints were found. These sightings and signs, though needing verification through more extensive surveys, indicate the possibility that the species may remain extant in exceedingly small numbers.

Clearly, IUCN's webpage will need to be updated now. 

Fernandina island is the youngest of Galapagos islands, having risen out of the sea due to volcanic activity about 1 million years ago.   Most of the island is comprised of  near sterile lava fields, but there are some relatively large expanses that are covered with vegetation.  Tortoises would have had to colonize this island by having been swept away from another island and drifted to its shores. 

Most of the island is covered in sterile lava fields - a member of the expedition.  

It's not inconceivable to imagine that sudden tectonic activity would have rapidly pushed an shoreline rich in giant tortoise habitat underwater, resulting in dozens or more giant tortoises floating off.   One such massive and rapid shift in the sea bottom in the 1950's resulted in several hectares of new land emerging from the sea overnight - you can walk on this new land at Urbina Bay, a visitor site. 

 

The new find - wondering what all the fuss is about.

Scientists and conservationists have long suspected that the Fernandina island tortoise still survived.  The evidence described above was tantalizing and spurred more than one tortoise-finding expedition over the years.  The members of this recent expedition get to claim a very much sought-after prize.  I can just hear them now at the bar "I was on the expedition that discovered the long lost Fernandina giant tortoise!".  

At the centre, Washington (Wacho) Tapia, and 2nd from the right, Wilson Cabrera - some of my former colleagues

There are 12 species of giant tortoise living in Galapagos.  Taxonomists have argued amongst themselves over whether or not these were all distinct species, or simply sub-species.  The "splitters" won the latest round of that argument (e.g. those who are keen on seeing more distinct species, rather than just many sub-species lumped together under a broad species - a.k.a the "lumpers").  One of the things I learned while working with scientists in Galapagos was that the line between two different species, versus a species and a sub-species was not a scientific one - but rather one of debate.  This debate is a graphic illustration of the mutability of life - two different species are not separated by a hard line, but rather, represent the ends of a continuum of intermediary specimens which, at one point, end up blurring the species divisions altogether.   Galapagos tortoises are a good example.    

The next step will be to determine if the female was not alone, and to see if there is a viable population on this volcanically active island.    More good news to follow, we hope!

(photos taken from expedition member FaceBook posts - thank you).

Marine puppies... or sea lions?

Every once in a while we like to post some of the comments we get from our returning guests as a news item.  We're always so pleased to received these comments - they make us feel as though we're missing out on all the fun!   Here's one from Rebecca Knowles (from Viriginia, USA) who just got back from their trip last week.    Typically we use on the the "quotable comments" section, but Rebecca's review deserves to be published at length:

Comments about the crew
We loved the crew! Captain Jose was extra special! Our daughter Laura joined us at the last minute. She speaks Spanish and could talk to the crew reasonably well. They enjoyed that, as did she. Enrique and Ricardo were very helpful as we got in and out of the pangas. Enrique is so funny! Freddy kept the ship working--no issues at all. Chef Angel was a miracle worker in that tiny kitchen. And Roberto was a superman--serving our meals and keeping our rooms tidy.
Comments for / about the naturalist guide
Please share with us any positive comments, or constructive criticism on the guide's performance. (optional)
He was wonderful! He was great for our group. He's very smart, with a wide range of knowledge that he shares very well--he makes what he know accessible and understandable. I loved his presentations! And he was helpful with follow up questions.
Comments on off-ship excursions
Please share with us any positive comments, or constructive criticism on the off ship excursions (optional)
Snorkeling ws amazing! Dolphins one day, sea turtles another. Sea lions played with our daughter then with us in Marchena. You could feel them asking you to play! Loved the hikes--the sea birds everywhere were great. The marine iguanas on Fernandina were incredible. We saw at least 19 giant tortoises on Isabela-one snapped at our guide's toe! The kayaking was great too. There are not enough superlatives to do this justice!
Quotable comments on your trip?
After each excursion, we would say--how can you top that? Then they did! Snorkeling with the dolphin pod and snorkeling surrounded by sea turtles--it was indescribable! We snorkeled on Marchena with baby sea lions--they were so close and so curious! One followed us back to shore wondering why we had to leave! The marine iguanas were incredible, as were the giant tortoises. Our guide gave us an incredible understanding of the uniqueness, fragility, and interdependence of the animals and plants in the entire ecosystem. Truly the trip of a lifetime! And CNH--thank you for making it such a smooth trip. You took care of all the details--no surprises. And your respect for the Galapagos was evident from your website and was borne out by the experience we had on the Samba. This is one of the most special places on earth--thank you for facilitating our chance to experience it.

Non-quotable comments

A booby pooped on me, mostly on my hat, thankfully. The crew immediately said that means good luck! Ha! And a special note: Our 28 year old daughter accompanied us at the last minute. She stayed in our room. We were quite comfortable, ok a bit tight but perfectly fine. (Guest Bruce let us store our bags in his extra bunk--very helpful!) Giancarlo offered to give Laura his room, and the captain asked repeatedly if we were ok. That was very thoughtful--that they were so concerned about our comfort.

 

 

Happy Darwin Day... let's talk about rats

(Today, February 12th, is “International Charles Darwin Day”, marking Mr. Darwin’s birthday in 1809. We’re marking this great day to tell the story of the Pinzon Giant Tortoise’s return from the brink, just a few years ago.)  

Pinzon is among the smallest of the main islands that make up the Galapagos archipelago.  Located just about in the geographical centre of the collection of 12 or so larger islands, Pinzon is 1789 hectares (about 4470 acres) in size – think of a round island that’s about 5 km in diameter (about 3 miles). 

Pinzon island - in the centre of the archipelago

But it’s tall for such a small size.  With hills reaching  458 metres (1,503 feet), it’s a very rugged place, populated by the infamous “uña de gato” (cat’s claw) tree (xanthoxylum fagara). It’s eponymous thorns seem to reach out to you at all times, just like those of a cat feeling a bit too playful.   

I had the “pleasure” of taking a hike on it back in 1998 – we had a team of three machete wielding park staff with us to forge a trail no longer than a few hundred meters – which took a good 30 minutes to create.  I was in the company of Dr. Linda Cayot – the woman who played a key role in establishing and operating the highly successful giant tortoise breeding program at the Charles Darwin Research Station / Galapagos National Park Service, starting in the 1980’s.  We were there to check on the status of the tortoise population.  

Uña de Gato (a.k.a Cat's claw) tree.  No explanation required.

Though the cat’s claw makes the going very difficult for humans venturing onto Pinzon, it did nothing to stop Black rats from thriving there.   Introduced to Pinzon in the 1800’s (by accident most likely as ships anchored and people moved back and forth to the island), the rats quickly learned to feast on tortoise hatchlings.   In no time the rat population skyrocketed, marking the end of the ability of the giant tortoises of Pinzon to successfully raise new generations.  Though they kept on laying eggs, by the 1900’s, scientists estimated that zero hatchlings survived the rat predation into adulthood.    

The not yet "giant", giant tortoise makes for a great rat snack

It wasn’t until 1965 (just when the Galapagos National Park was being created, along with the Charles Darwin Research Station), that efforts were made to do something about it.  By then, Pinzon island was populated only by middle aged and geriatric tortoises.   There were few tortoises younger than nearly 70 years.  Scientists gathered eggs before they hatched and took them to the newly created tortoise breeding / egg hatching centre on Santa Cruz Island, at the Darwin Station and Park headquarters.  

In 1970, 20 juvenile tortoises, now big enough to be able to resist attacks from rats, were returned to Pinzon island.  In that year, scientists estimated the total population of island-born tortoises on Pinzon at only 150 – 200.   By 1990, that number had dropped to 80-100 - the Pinzon giant tortoise had been racing towards extinction.    Thankfully, the off-island breeding and repatriation program was well established by then, with a total of 268 off-island juveniles having been taken back to the island. 

Still, the on-going presence of rats meant that should the ability of the park and Darwin Station to keep on “seeding” the island with juveniles ever wane, the tortoises would eventually be doomed.  Getting rid of the rats was the ultimate end goal – but the task was daunting.   The first attempt took place in 1988.   A team of about 45 people spent over two weeks planting rat poison and traps throughout the island in an effort to kill every single rat there.   The attempt ultimately failed for lack of resources to maintain a continuous effort, and for the inability to effectively cover every part of the island. 

It was only in 2012 that a large scale systematic eradication effort was once again attempted.  With the help of GPS technology, the team (Park, Darwin Station, Island Conservation and others)  was able to disperse rat poison uniformly throughout the island, leaving no area safe to rats.   By December of that year, all indications pointed to the complete absence of rats.  It was in December 2014 that the first baby tortoises, born naturally on Pinzon, were spotted – a first in over 100 years.  To be safe, the team returned regularly to check for the presence of rats.  On each visit, they found no trace of any rat, allowing them to declare the island “RAT FREE” in early 2015.  The great conservation news story was shared around the world.     

As we noted in a news items a few weeks ago (click here for details), the same effort is being made today on North Seymour island.   Home to many bird colonies, North Seymour also has plenty of rats that wreak havoc on eggs and nestlings.   This time, drone technology is being used to disperse the rat poison uniformly throughout this small, flat island (this one is flat and only 190 hectares – 470 acres).   After Pinzon, this should be a walk in the park for the people carrying out the work.   It’s expected to be completed just about now – fingers crossed!

Plastic bottle ban bodes well

Plastic bottles were banned from the municipality of Santa Cruz (which covers the entire island of the same name and includes the main Galapagos town of Puerto Ayora) last week.  The municipality passed a regulation banning all plastic bottles containing carbonated drinks, effective February 26th.

It's good to remember that all manufactured goods in Galapagos are brought in from the continent, from toilet paper to roofing tiles, and all waste generated in Galapagos stays in Galapagos.   A visit to the local landfill is an eye opener.  

Though this will affect a small part of the whole, it's a good first step - but it remains a first step, in reducing the amount of waste being stockpiled in these fragile islands, and in reducing the amount of plastic ending up in oceans.   

Now, let's hope the regulation will be applied.  There have been instances of wishful regulating before.   

 

Text of the regulation (in Spanish)

New York Times on Galapagos land based tourism

The New York Times published an article on land based tourism today.  It gives a perfunctory overview of the issues around the absence of any caps on growth (20% increase in land based tourism between 2017 and 2018) but does not even mention the link between people and the introduction of harmful non-native species (e.g. "alien" species, like rats, weeds, diseases, insects). 

Alien species are the most serious threat to Galapagos wildlife.  The hard-to-shake link between the movement of people and goods between Galapagos and the continent, and the arrival and dispersal of alien species is at the root of just about all concerns over the long term health of unique Galapagos animals and plants. 

I found the article more of a story telling exercise as opposed to hard journalism.  It provides a few haphazard snapshots of what land-based tourism looks like, bringing in a few people to give it the human interest side of things.    

If you're keen on a more technical discussion, see the previous news item on the CNH Tours website here.  It was published 2 days ago and has more recent numbers than those you'll find in the NYT article.

To see the NYT article, click here.  

 

 

 

20% growth in land-based tourism last year - can this continue?

The Galapagos Park and the Galapagos Tourism Observatory released the tourism numbers for 2018 yesterday.  The numbers show the entrenchment of very high, most likely unsustainable land based tourism growth in the islands.  In 2018, a total of 275,817 people travelled to the Galapagos islands as tourists, up 14% from 2017.

It’s important to note that there are two tourism models in Galapagos:

i) Land-based, whereby visitors stay in hotels/hostals/B&Bs/camping sites and

ii) Ship-based, whereby visitors live on an expedition cruise ship during their stay.

Some interesting results:

• Ship-based tourism has been flat / slightly declining since 2007 (apx. 72,000 / year)
• Between 2009 (after the recession) to 2018, land-based tourism has been growing by an annual rate of 16.7%. Between 2017 and 2018, land-based tourism has grown by a whopping 20%
• For the first time in 2010, the number of land-based visitors surpassed the number of ship-based visitors.
• By 2018, there were almost three times as many land-based visitors as there were ship-based visitors.
• With this kind of growth, there would be over 1,000,000 land based-visitors to Galapagos in little more than 20 years.

Until 2015, the statistics were gathered for both ship- and land-based numbers.  For an unknown reason, the Park stopped making the differentiation in 2016.  But by extrapolating from data between 2007 and 2015, we’ve made the conservative assumption that annual ship-based visitation from 2016 to 2018 has remained flat at 72,000 (see chart below).

Land-Based Tourism

Land-based tourism was virtually non-existent until the mid 1990’s. It took off with the support of information sharing over the internet. The few land based tourism pioneers who first blindly ventured to the islands started sharing their information for the whole world to see, posting on various on-line traveller discussion forums. “Doing Galapagos on the Cheap” and “Galapagos Islands – Detailed Guide for Land Based Travellers” have been two of the most active discussion groups on the TripAdvisor Galapagos Islands forum. It became very easy to get all the answers to your questions when considering a land-based visit – and the numbers took off.

 

But has it been too much of a good thing? If not, then can it become too much of a good thing? At which point? When we’ve reached that point, will the authorities be able to control further growth? All these are good questions to which few good answers have been provided by the powers in charge of Galapagos conservation and tourism.

The World Heritage Commitment

A bit of context: At the request of the government of Ecuador, Galapagos was added to the UNESCO World Heritage (WH) list in 1978 (the first ever WH site) in recognition of its unique wildlife and how it helped illustrate biological evolution in action. Under the terms of the WH Convention, Ecuador committed itself before the community of nations to conserving that wildlife in perpetuity for the benefit of humanity (that’s the purpose of the WH Convention). The concern is that unlimited tourism growth will eventually conflict in a serious way with wildlife conservation.

Beyond habitat destruction, the main threat is the introduction of alien species, which prey on native species, compete with them or bring in new diseases or parasites. The more you have people living in the islands and having people and cargo moving back and forth between them and the continent, the greater the risk of bringing in destructive alien species. What would Galapagos be without the giant tortoise, the marine iguana, or Darwin’s famous finches?

UNESCO’s WH Committee (a group of 21 countries who act as de facto “bouncers” for the WH club) has been monitoring Galapagos, as it does all WH sites (I led that monitoring effort from 2003 – 2012).  Already in 2007, it expressed concern over the rapid growth of tourism and the absence of any clear tourism management plan.  It reiterated its concern in 2016 when it saw that numbers kept on growing relentlessly.  It asked the Government of Ecuador to report back on what it was doing to deal with the issue.  The Committee reviewed the situation again in 2018.  Last June, in the absence of any tangible progress on the matter, it continued to express its concerns over the apparent absence of a tourism management plan.  It has asked the Government of Ecuador to report back by the end of 2019 on the matter.

Residents feel they are losing out

Ironically, a review of local Galapagos Facebook group discussions shows that residents believe land- based tourism is down – that very little money is staying in the community. The most vocal participants in the FaceBook groups promote the illusion that ship-based tourism scoops up all the tourism dollars, leaving none for the community (when in fact, it can be shown that nearly 10% of the working age population of Galapagos is closely linked to the ship-based tourism sector as employees, owners, service providers etc.).

Part of the reason that some locals are still feeling out of the loop is that a large proportion of land- based visitors are low to very low budget travellers, looking for the $5 meal, the $20 bed, the last minute day trip at reduced prices and seeking out the activities that have no cost (e.g. beach, swimming holes, hiking). While a ship based visit might cost $500 to $1000 per person / day, a land based visit can be had for $50/day if one is singularly focused on thrift. The average ship-based visitor likely leaves more money in the local community in the form of well paid jobs (and tips – don’t forget to tip well for good service…) and profits to owners than perhaps 10 land-based visitors.

Meanwhile, in anticipation of great profits to be made from land-based tourism, one may be forgiven in concluding that that every resident in Galapagos has opened up a t-shirt shop, a travel agency, a rooming house or a snack bar – the vast majority of the “mom & pop” variety. The Ministry of Tourism reported an increase in the number of hotel/rooming house type establishments from 73 in 2007, to 291 in 2015.

Besides the formal establishments, a brief visit to Booking.com or Airbnb.com gives one the impression that everybody is renting out rooms in their homes for tourists.  A good number of our friends in the islands are certainly dipping their paddle into that stream – how can you blame them? But there is obviously an oversupply, driving prices down.  It’s no surprise that the reported occupancy is in the 30% range – meaning most people likely don’t get a big return on their investment (no matter how small).   It’s also no surprise that these people are pushing for yet more land-based tourists in order to fill their establishments.     

Mom & Pop tourist trinket shop in Galapagos - very low margins - impossible to get ahead

Political pressure for more visitors

The local political pressure to keep tourism numbers growing is strong.  Any initiative that might be seen as putting a damper on land-based tourism is resisted.  The park entrance fee has been $100 since the late 1980's. At that time, $100 was about 10% of the price of the average 1 week cruise.  Today, $100 is about 1.5% - 2% of that price (significantly less than what one is expected to leave in tips!).  Since 2015, responsibility for setting the park fee was transferred to the Galapagos governing council.  Though there is every technical justification to at least double, if not triple it, the political consequences of doing so are considered very unfavourable – and hence it remains at $100.

Ship-based tourism = steady state

While land-based tourism takes place in a bit of a “wild west” regulatory environment (particularly in regards to controlling numbers) ship based tourism is highly regulated (the Government of Ecuador receives many well deserved compliments over its work on managing ship based tourism).  The total number of ship-based beds has been capped for over 20 years.  No new ship is allowed to operate in Galapagos unless a ship of similar size is retired.  This model has contributed to a healthy ship-based tourism industry in many regards:

• Environmental impacts are understood and managed.   Improved regulations have actually reduced the impact over the years.
• Visitor experience quality is maintained - no crowding at visitor sites, wildlife is not driven away.
• Overall quality and maintenance of ships is significantly improved.
• Skills and professionalism of ship crew have improved over the years.
• Steady, well paid jobs are provided for many Galapagos residents.
• Ship servicing sector in Galapagos is robust (maintenance, food supply logistics, bookkeeping…).

Today, you’re a lot less likely to share you bed with cockroaches, to have staff making passes at female passengers, to suffer through engine breakdowns or to have gastro-intestinal problems than was the case 20-30 years ago.

A limit on the number of park entrance permits?

Though land-based tourism can offer a good and more budget friendly alternative approach to seeing the Galapagos, it remains very poorly managed. Too many locals are chasing too few dollars from too many low end visitors. False expectations are created, and the cycle continues as nothing is done to put a cap on numbers. More people get in on the action, further over-supplying it.

Restricting the number of land-based visitors (as has been successfully done for ship-based visitors) along with establishing policies promoting local ownership would help tighten the market and support the local economy.  Prices would go up, resulting in more money to invest in staff, training, infrastructure and more.

The authorities are currently trying to restrict land-based tourism by insisting that anyone arriving in the islands must show proof of accommodations. They want to discourage the happy-go-lucky “I’ll-sleep-on-a-couch / find-me-a-cheap-last-minute-deal” type of visitor.  This approach, technically in place for the past few months, is not yet being enforced.  Even if enforced, smart folks on internet travel forums are already advising on how to get around such restrictions (you book a place on booking.com, you print your reservation, you cancel the booking - presto! You have evidence to show that you've pre-booked a hotel).  

It’s time for the Park to seriously consider putting a cap on the total number of park entrance permits sold each year.  275,000 permits were sold in 2018. If the cap could be set at a point that doesn’t cause an instant local rebellion, while at the same time clearly identifying an end point to growth, good things could happen.

The Park could ensure a more even distribution of visitors throughout the year (no more high season panic, low season famine).  It would need to work with hotel / ship owners / tour operators to establish a fair system of entrance permit quotas.  A secondary market to ensure fluidity / flexibility could be encouraged. It would be complicated, but with some concerted effort, and consultation with the interested / affected parties, a sophisticated system could be established.  The objective would be to at once set a limit on the total number of visitors while allowing for a healthy entrepreneurial environment to flourish.  Under these conditions, we could expect a gradual improvement in overall quality of infrastructure and service. As the market tightened, prices would increase, and capital for investment in staff, training an facilities became more readily available.

What do we really really want?

The final goal would be the establishment of a healthy, quality land based tourism industry from which all determined participants (employees and owners) could have expectations of a reasonable living, while at the same time keeping an eye on the long term conservation of this iconic World Heritage site.

We’ll see.

Our friend -- President of the United Nations General Assembly!

OK - so we I may stretch the truth a wee bit to get your attention.   But an old colleague of mine, Maria Fernanda Espinosa, was elected as president of the UN General Assembly last September.   I worked with her when she was the head of IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) South American office, and again when she was the Ecuadorian Minister for Heritage. 

She's not the kind of friend I'd feel comfortable calling on when I'm next in New York, expecting her to drop everything to see me - but we did work on conservation and World Heritage issues together back when she was still en Ecuador, and when I was with UNESCO, and we did enjoy a tête-à-tête together at a fine Quito restaurant once.   

Her career has been quite stellar in the past decade.  She has a Ph.D. in environmental geography from the USA.  In 2007, she left her senior IUCN job to take up a position as Minister of Foreign Affairs (quite a leap!).  She was also minister of National Defense, her country's permanent representative to the UN in New York AND Geneva.  She's also a recognized poet, having been awarded a national prize for her work.   She's currently once again the Minister of Foreign Affairs for Ecuador.   The role of President of the UN General Assembly is a temporary one, and consists largely of overseeing the management of the UN General Assembly meetings over the period of 1 year.  It's considered a high honour for a country to hold this position - and is usually conferred to countries whose representatives are well respected among their peers.   Bravo Maria Fernanda!

 

An Affair to Remember .... Even 80 Years Later

Intrigue, love triangles, jealousy… these are the usual fare of romantic dramas.   But in Galapagos, you need to throw in a bit of food poisoning, extreme thirst, a donkey, some gentleman scientists and yes, mysterious disappearances and a pair of dead bodies on a remote beach to give romance a bit of spice. 

The Ecuadorian embassy in Ottawa invited the CNH Tours team to a screening of the 2013 documentary film “The Galapagos Affair – When Satan Came to Eden” last week.  We extended that invitation to our guests living in the region.   We had meant to see this film for a long time now and were glad to have the chance to do so with our friends at the embassy.  

The tale is a well-known one in Galapagos.  During our time there, we’d certainly heard about the racy story of the first settlers on Floreana Island, in the mid-1930’s.   The cast included a pair of German donkey-loving toothless (literally) Nietzsche-reading vegetarian divorcés searching for a garden of Eden; a self-proclaimed Austrian/French baroness, her male attendant and her slave-lover on the lookout for the ideal place to build her “Hotel Paraiso” and all too happy to entertain visiting scientists; and finally, the Baronesses’ neighbours, another German couple who just wanted to tend to their garden. 

It was a mix that led to high tensions and ultimately catastrophe of one sort or another for all but the garden tending Germans (whose descendants we know personally and who own the Tip Top expedition cruise ships in Galapagos). 

At a little over 2 hours, the documentary could come across as long for those not particularly keen or interested in Galapagos.  But if you are a fan of the islands, if you’re planning a trip there, or if you’ve been, you are more likely to appreciate it.  

I was very impressed by the quantity of video footage of the group (thanks to the visiting scientists who brought the equipment with them), and quality pictures of the protagonists.   Voiceovers (from Diane Kruger, Kate Blanchett, among others) are used to related the lives of the settlers, with the text taken from their own writings.    The film manages a good mix of old footage, pictures and voiceovers with modern interviews of current Galapagos residents who are old enough to remember life in the islands in those days and also of some of the protagonists descendants and family members.  

Overall it was a very well done job at relating the elements of the story.   We were happy to see some of our old friends in the film – namely Daniel Fitter (with whom we used to have the occasional gin & tonic at our home, or with him and his wife at his home), Tui de Roy – a colleague from the Darwin Foundation General Assembly and famous wildlife photographer and her mother Jacqueline (recently deceased).  It was also good to see Claudio Cruz, the brother of my close colleague while in the islands, the late Felipe Cruz. 

We recommend this film to those considering a trip to the islands.    It will give you an additional perspective on the archipelago and its early days.   It’s not a wildlife film at all – beyond a few cameo appearances from some of the usual suspects, the film focuses exclusively on the human history there.   Just don’t let yourselves get lured into moving to Floreana in search of your personal paradise… the outcome might be gruesome. 

Born free.... Galapagos style (e.g. reptiles, not lions)

The Galapagos National Park is releasing over 1,000 land iguanas onto Santiago Island these days.  Land iguanas used to thrive here, until people brought over some pigs in the 1800's.  The pigs thrived and liked to eat iguana, giant tortoise and sea turtle eggs - they were experts at finding them.   From the 1970's on-wards, the National Park Service sent hunters to this otherwise uninhabited island to shoot pigs.  They would shoot hundreds and hundreds of them every year, but pigs being pigs, they would reproduce vigorously, negating all the efforts of the National Park Service.   As a result, the island had no more iguanas, and only had very old giant tortoises lumbering about.  

When I started working in Galapagos in 1998, we adopted a new approach to pig eradication.   We used new GPS technology, and systematic poison baiting to ensure that every square meter of this 35,000 hectare island (nearly 100,000 acres) became vulnerable to the Park's efforts.   By the early 2000's, pigs had finally been eradicated.  We monitored the entire island for any trace of pigs for 18 months - and found none.  It was a huge conservation milestone.  Giant tortoises eggs would finally be allowed to hatch, and baby giant tortoises could reach adulthood for the first time in over 100 years.  

It's another major milestone to have the Park Service re-introduce land iguanas to Santiago.   They are sourcing them from North Seymour island - which in itself is a great news story.  The North Seymour land iguanas were the last holdouts following their decimation on South Seymour (a.k.a. Baltra island, site of a US naval / air base in the 2nd world war and where the main Galapagos airport is located today).   With the Charles Darwin Research Station, the Park Service has set up a very successful breeding program - good enough to start sending some of the new iguana generations to Santiago island.

 

(all pictures from the Galapagos National Park Service)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The first time I saw a man in drag in Quito…

 

With all the wonderfully varied traditions and holiday activities all over the world, I would say that it’s hard to come across one that truly surprises you anymore. With the rise of online media and digital storytelling from all the corners of this great Planet, we have the ability to see intimate moments and celebrations anywhere, no matter where we’re from.

Ecuador is no exception to this rich variety of holiday traditions. As mentioned in a previous blog piece (found here), the baking and celebrating of the Day of the Dead is lovely and something I look forward to each year. 

But the man in drag… It was my first time in Ecuador and having never travelled by myself before, I was a bit anxious and I would certainly define it as “on edge” as well. I had a long day of travel and arrived into Quito at about midnight. At the time I also didn’t speak Spanish, but instead thought to myself (as most Canadians do, I am sure), “I speak French, how hard could it be to understand Spanish?” Well, when approached by a man dressed in drag at the airport in Quito with a container of coins, there was no French to Spanish translation that was going to help me in that moment.

It turns out that it was New Year’s eve and traditionally in Ecuador men dress up as women – pretending to be widows – they go around asking for spare change.

 

Men participating in Quito. (Photo credit El Comercio.)

 

While I am not clear on the administrative backing of this, it is said that the money is for charity in the end. There are usually local competitions and in 2017-18 in Puerto Ayora, a pageant of sorts happened during the New Year’s Eve celebrations where several men competed for the prize of “Best Widow”. (The one that brought the doll and cried very convincingly, but also danced well, won.)

So, if travelling in Ecuador around New Year’s there’s no need to feel flabbergasted to have men dressed as woman approach you asking for change. If you’re feeling adventurous, ask them for their story before dropping a coin or two into their container!

 

Don't go to Galapagos for the fireworks

Humans may get thrills from noisy fireworks displays, but wildlife tends to pooh-pooh such forms of entertainment.   The Galapagos Regional government just banned fireworks in recognition of the incompatibility between these noisy explosions and the wildlife that attracts over 250,000 visitors a year from around the world.   

Our friends in the islands have been asking for a ban for many years.  We thought that the local politicians would never go for it, given the mass popular appeal of both large displays of the kind that are held for New Year's eve and other major events, and for the smaller private fireworks that folks put on to celebrate more personal events.  

But the Galapagos government went through with it just earlier this week - imposing the ban as of yesterday, 28 December.   So, if you were hoping to catch fireworks in Galapagos this New Year's eve, it looks like you may be disappointed.   There is an exception to the rule however - if your fireworks don't make any noise, you can proceed.   

A wonderful and more meaningful alternative to loud bursts of light is the "año viejo" (old year) tradition in Ecuador.   During the day on the 31st of December, people will construct papier maché effigies of events or people that have caused them grief over the past year.   At midnight, the effigies are set alight and burn to the ground - a kind of expunging of bad vibes, clearing the air for a good start to the new year.  

 

Año viejos representing sports personalities and politicians, about to go up in flames...

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